Summary Report of Scientific Studies:
Disinfectants, Hand/Body, Surface Sanitizers & Stellarcleenz
Independent Research Commissioned by Stellarcleenz
Laboratory studies were conducted under scientific protocols by a Certified Clinical Research Professional and Senior Research Specialist at the University of Arizona facilities from May through December 2015 in Tucson, Arizona.
The purpose of these studies was to compare and prove under scientific protocols the efficacy and longevity of Stellarcleenz, made of 99.99% pure silver, as safe, chemical free, anti-microbial cloths compared to the leading, most popular gels, sprays and disposable wipes on the market that advertise they kill 99% of germs and viruses.
Below is a summary of the findings. Unlike all alcohol or ethanol based anti-microbial products which contain 60% and higher levels, Stellarcleenz contain no alcohol, toxins, chemicals or unregulated fragrances. Findings concluded Stellarcleenz were effective to use on all parts of the human body, as well as on surfaces and electronic devices; and were safe for people of all ages. Laboratory testing included double blind studies on Stellarcleenz silver cloths after 10,000 wipes without laundering, and in addition, after more than 500 washes, and proved as efficacious as on the very first use.
Reported and illustrated below are snap shots of laboratory tests.
Studies conducted under scientific laboratory protocols, Tucson, AZ
Bacterial lawn testing
Agarose plates and assorted reagents were used during testing. Sterile disks and cloth cut-outs used for bacterial lawn testing. Overnight incubation at 37° C, human body temperature. Bacterial spread or ‘lawn’ plates result in a heavy, often confluent growth of culture spread evenly over the surface of the growth medium. This means they can be used to test the sensitivity of bacteria to many antimicrobial substances -- for example, mouthwashes, garlic, disinfectants and antibiotics. In these experiments a wide range of antiseptic hand cleaners and Stellarcleenz were repeatedly tested.
Studies conducted included Semi-porous Surfaces, Cell Phones, Cloths and Human Hand Testing.
Bacterial streak testing was done using sterile swabs and agarose plates. A semi-porous surface and a cell phone were selected for initial testing. A semi-porous bench was segmented into same sized spaces. Separate spaces were cleaned with a reagent, swabbed immediately and a second time after 30 minutes. The swabs were streaked onto agarose plates.
An electronic device, a cell phone, Stellarcleenz cloths and hands were also tested in this manner (swabbed, streaked and plated). Stellarcleenz were tested immediately after packet storage (new product) and after immediate use post cleaning to determine bacteria present in the actual cloth.
Study: Semi-Porous Surface
| Stellarcleenz cloth
Bacterial colony counts show relatively equal amounts of bacteria present after initial cleaning with Stellarcleenz vs. a major, leading brand (after three tests the data was not statistically significant). Stellarcleenz was as effective as the major popular brand. The surfaces were left undisturbed and re-swabbed after 30 minutes. After 30 minutes there was comparatively a notable reduction in bacteria present on the surface cleaned with Stellarcleenz. The surface cleaned with the major brand gel had significantly more bacteria present 30 minutes post-cleaning. This was a statistically significant difference. A 10 fold – or 800% difference.
Study: Bacteria on Cell Phones
The left side depicts a swab/gel taken from a cell phone. The middle depicts the same cell phone, swabbed after being wiped down with a dry electronics cleaning cloth for 10 seconds. The far right is a phone after wiping for 10 seconds with Stellarcleenz.
A dry electronic cleaning cloth marked for use as a bactericidal cleaner was compared to the Stellarcleenz cloth. Stellarcleenz was significantly and statistically more effective at removing bacteria than the electronic cleaning cloth after dry use, safely removing over 99% of the bacteria present. Due the high bacteria counts present on cell phones, over a series of studies, the same Stellarcleenz cloths were used to test the ability of Stellarcleenz to “self-sterilize” over time.
Study: Cloths in general and over time
Immediately after cleaning the phone and in time increments up to 15 minutes – the Stellarcleenz cloth was swabbed and streaked on an agarose plate in a sterile manner. There was initially some bacteria present. The presence of bacteria decreased to zero over fifteen minutes.
Immediately after cleaning the phone and in time increments up to fifteen minutes – the Stellarcleenz cloth was swabbed and streaked on an agarose plate. There was initially some bacteria present. The presence of bacteria decreased to zero over fifteen minutes. This seems to indicate that the cloth itself remains antibacterial and does not harbor bacteria on its own.
Study: Human Hands
Wiping with Stellarcleenz for approximately ten seconds appears to significantly reduce overlaying bacterial presence on skin.
Shown are three, duplicated representative images from agarose gel tests.
Participants were asked to wipe their finger in a ‘Z’ pattern over one side of the gel, and then to clean the same finger with a Stellarcleenz cloth for approximately ten seconds and then to “re-wipe” the same finger over the other side of the gel. The reduction in bacterial colonies appears immediate and statistically relevant.
In conclusion, Stellarcleenz 99.99% pure silver anti-microbial cloths have been scientifically tested, repeatedly and over time. Results and published literature indicate silver is over 99% effective in eradicating germs, fungi and viruses on contact. Studies conducted elucidate Stellarcleenz’ ability to safely kill bacteria, fungi and viruses on human skin and all parts of the body, as well as on surfaces and electronic devices.
Scientific Sources and References
Below is a partial list of published literature reviewed in conjunction
- Reynolds, K. A., P. M. Watt, S. A. Boone and C. P. Gerba. 2005. Occurrence of bacteria and biochemical markers on public surfaces. Int. J. Environ.l Hlth. Res. 15:225-234.
MRSA/Silver compounds and cloths & other drug resistant bacterium:
- Bowler PG, Welsby S, Towers V, Booth R, Hogarth A, Rowlands V, Joseph A, Jones SA. Multidrug-resistant organisms, wounds and topical antimicrobial protection. Int Wound J. 2012 May 29.
- R.E. Burrell. A scientific perspective on the use of topical silver preparations. Ostomy/Wound Management, 49 (2003), pp. 19–24
- A. Burd, C.H. Kwok, S.C. Hung, H.S. Chan, H. Gu, W.K. Lam, et al. A comparative study of the cytotoxicity of silver-based dressings in monolayer cell, tissue explant, and animal models. Wound Repair and Regeneration (2007), pp. 94–104
- Sangappa, M, Thiagarajan, P. Combating drug resistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical infections, with silver oxide nanoparticles. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2015 Mar-Apr;77(2):151-5.
- Lee SJ, Heo DN, Moon JH, Park HN, Ko WK, Bae MS, Lee JB, Park SW, Kim EC, Lee CH, Jung BY, Kwon IK. Chitosan/polyurethane blended fiber sheets containing silver sulfadiazine for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2014 Oct;14(10):7488-94.
- Jamal MA, Rosenblatt J, Jiang Y, Hachem R, Chaftari AM, Raad II. Prevention of transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms during catheter exchange using antimicrobial catheters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Sep;58(9):5291-6.
- Kotsanas D, Wijesooriya WR, Sloane T, Stuart RL, Gillespie EE. The silver lining of disposable sporicidal privacy curtains in an intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Apr;42(4):366-70.
- Tallósy SP, Janovák L, Ménesi J, Nagy E, Juhász Á, Balázs L, Deme I, Buzás N, Dékány I. Investigation of the antibacterial effects of silver-modified TiO2 and ZnO plasmonic photocatalysts embedded in polymer thin films. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Oct;21(19):11155-67.
- Slavin, H. Ionic Silver – The Powerful Defense Against Viruses And Other Microbes. Health Freedom News, 2006, Vol. 24, No. 3.
- Ivanova VT, Ivanova MV, Sapurina IY, Burtseva EI, Trushakova SV, Isaeva EI, Kirillova ES, Stepanova HV, Oscerco TA, Manykin AA. [Comparative study of carbon nanotubes and polymer composites with silver as sorbents of the influenza A and B viruses]. Vopr Virusol. 2015;60(3):25-30.
- Gibson KE1, Crandall PG, Ricke SC. Removal and transfer of viruses on food contact surfaces by cleaning cloths. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 May;78(9):3037-44.
- Lansdown AB. Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2006;33:17-34.